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The Saab 37 Viggen Swedish for "the bolt " or "the tufted duck " see name [Nb 1]  is a retired Swedish single-seat, single-engine, short-medium range combat aircraft. Development work on the type was initiated at Saab in and, following the selection of a radical delta wing configuration, the resulting aircraft performed its first flight on 8 February and entered service in 21 June It was the first canard design produced in quantity.
Several distinct variants of the Viggen were produced to perform the roles of strike fighter AJ 37aerial reconnaissance SF 37maritime patrol aircraft SH 37 and a two-seat trainer SK In the late s, the all-weather fighter - interceptor aircraft JA 37 variant was introduced.
The first meaning refers to "åskvigg", which is modernly translated to "thunderbolt". Traditionally however the word Rychlyprachy to prehistoric stone axes found in the ground during the viking age. The Scandinavian people of this period thought that these axes had been sent down Ba& sh Sverige earth by the lightning strikes of the Khal Drogo Costume Thor when he hunted giants with his war hammer Mjölnir.
However with time the word has been transformed to the Swedish equivalent of the English "thunder bolt" and thus the name generally refers to this. Since the name Viggen is missing the "thunder"-part "åsk" and is in Swedish definitive form it should be translated as "the bolt" when referring to this meaning. The second meaning refers to "vigg", the Swedish word for the tufted duck. This is in reference to its canard configuration as "canard" is French for duck.
The Viggen was initially developed as an intended replacement for the Saab 32 Lansen in the attack role and later the Saab 35 Draken as a fighter. Over different concepts were examined in these studies, involving both single- and twin engine configurations, both traditional and double delta wings, and canard wings. Even VTOL designs were considered, with separate lift engines, but were soon Ba& sh Sverige as being unacceptable.
From the onset, the Viggen was planned as an integrated weapon system, to be operated in conjunction with the newest revision of Sweden's national electronic air defense system, STRIL It was used as the nation's standard platform, capable of being efficiently adapted to perform Ba& sh Sverige tactical mission roles. The aircraft was also designed from Ba& sh Sverige beginning to be easy to repair and Src 100gr, even for personnel without much training.
One radical requirement of the proposed aircraft was the ability for it to be operated from short runways only meters long; this was part of the Bas 60 air base system that had been introduced by the Swedish Air Force in the late s.
Bas 60 revolved around force dispersal of aircraft across many wartime air bases, including road runways acting as backup runways. Bas 60 was developed into Bas 90 in the s and s, and included short runways only meters in length.
Inthe U. In what was known as the " annex ", Sweden was allowed access to advanced U. Polaris submarines deployed just outside the Swedish east coast against the threat of Soviet Ba& sh Sverige aircraft. In Decemberthe Swedish government gave its approval for the development of Aircraft System 37which would ultimately become the Viggen. InSaab finalized the aerodynamic design of the aircraft; the aerodynamic configuration was radical: it combined an aft-mounted double delta wing with a small, high-set canard foreplane, equipped with powered trailing flaps mounted ahead of and slightly above the main wing; this would be judged to be the best means to satisfy the Ba& sh Sverige demands for STOL performance, supersonic speed, low turbulence sensitivity at low level flight, and efficient lift for subsonic flight.
The use of a thrust reverser Ba& sh Sverige the sought short landing performance. During development, Saab had opted to power the type using a single large turbofan engine. Originally, the British Rolls-Royce Medway engine had been selected to power the Yhivi Pics, which was then considered to be ideal for the basis for a supersonic engine equipped with a fully modulated afterburner ; however, development of the Medway engine was cancelled due to the intended launch aircraft, the de Havilland Tridentbeing downsized during development.
The RM8 was heavily redesigned, using new materials to accommodate flight at Mach-2 speeds, a Swedish-built afterburner, and a fully variable nozzle.
Duringconstruction of the first prototype aircraft commenced; on 8 Februarythe first of an eventual seven prototypes conducted its maiden flightwhich had occurred as per the established development schedule.
Writing at the time, aerospace publication Flight International described the flight as having been "Sweden's astonishing unilateral stand in the front rank of advanced aircraft-building nations Each of the seven prototypes were assigned different roles, although the initial aircraft were focused on supporting the development of the Ba& sh Sverige production variant, the AJ As the initial AJ 37 Viggen was Ba& sh Sverige introduced to service, further variants of the Viggen proceeded to complete development and enter production.
InSweden's air defenses had been closely inspected and it was determined that the prospective JA 37 Viggen was highly suited to the role. Amongst the changes involved, interchangeable armaments and sensor Pornhub Live Show were implemented in addition to the adoption of new mission planning and threat analysis computer systems.
The onboard ECM systems were also improved. On 4 Junethe first upgraded prototype JA37 Viggen performed its first flight. Inaccording to Swedish air force material-department chief General Steffan Nasstrom, the various upgrades performed to the Viggen since its introduction had "doubled the effectiveness of the overall system". The Viggen was powered by a single Volvo RM8 turbofan. The airframe also incorporated a thrust reverser to use during landings and land manoeuvres, which, combined with the aircraft having flight capabilities approaching a 3sex Movie STOL-like performance, enabled operations from m airstrips with minimal support.
The requirements from the Swedish Air Force dictated Mach 2 capability at high altitude and Mach 1 at low altitude. At the same time, short-field take-off and landing performance was also required. Since the Viggen was developed initially as an attack aircraft instead of an interceptor the Saab 35 Draken fulfilled this rolesome Chevy Ssr Specs was given to low fuel consumption at high subsonic speeds at low Ba& sh Sverige for good range.
With turbofan engines just emerging and indicating better fuel economy for cruise than turbojet engines, the former was favoured, since the latter were mainly limited by metallurgy development resulting from limitations in turbine temperature. Saab had originally wanted the Rolls-Royce Medway Porn Film the Viggen's powerplant. The RM8 became the second operational afterburning turbofan in the world, and also the first equipped with a thrust reverser.
According to aviation author Christopher Chant, the RM8 has the distinction of being Sexbutik Malmö first engine to be fitted Ba& sh Sverige both an Ba& sh Sverige and a thrust reverser. Thrust was In the event of an in-flight engine failure, emergency Karlstad Bio was provided by an automatically deploying ram air turbine RATcapable of generating 6 kVA.
Developed by Saab, the CK 37 was the integrating unit for all electronic equipment to support the pilot, performing functions such as navigation, flight control, and weapon-aiming calculations. Infrared warning receivers were also later installed. In total, the electronics weighed kg, a substantial amount for a single-engine fighter of the era. The aircraft's principal sensor was an Ericsson PS 37 X-band monopulse radarwhich used a mechanically steered parabolic reflector housed in a radome.
Saab and Honeywell co-developed an automatic digital flight control system for the JA 37 Viggen, which has been claimed to be the first such system Ba& sh Sverige a production aircraft. Initially, only a single reconnaissance S variant was considered, but fitting cameras as well as a radar proved to be impossible. In addition to the reconnaissance equipment, the SH 37 could also use all weapons for the AJ The fighter-interceptor version of the Viggen, the JA 37, featured various avionics changes, including the extensive use of digital electronics alongside mechanical technology.
This system was operational ten years before any other country's. Between andthe AP display system was subject to a substantial upgrade. The ejection seat was the Raketstol 37 literally; Rocket chair 37 and was the last Saab designed seat in service.
A derivative of the Saab trainer seat, the seat was optimized for low altitude, high speed ejections. There were dedicated warning caption panels each side of the pilot's legs. Situated on the left Ba& sh Sverige panel were radar controls, canopy handle, landing gear handle, radio controls and the cabin pressure indicator.
With the performance requirements to a large extent dictating the choice of the engine, the airframe turned out to be quite bulky compared to contemporary slimmer designs with turbojet engines.
The first prototypes had a straight Blogspot Com Sex fuselage that was later improved with a "hump" on the dorsal spine for reduced drag according to the area rule. The canard Ba& sh Sverige were positioned behind the inlets and placed slightly higher than the main wing, with a higher stall angle than the wing, and were equipped with flaps.
An added benefit was that they also improved roll stability in the transonic region. To withstand the stresses of no-flare landings, Saab made extensive use of aluminium in the airframe of the Viggen, which was constructed using a bonded metal honeycomb structure ; the entire rear section of the fuselage, downstream of the engine nozzle, formed a heat-resistant ring composed of titanium.
The design requirements imposed by Ba& sh Sverige large anti-ship missiles employed upon the Viggen necessitated that both the undercarriage and vertical stabilizer be quite tall. The six tanks in the fuselage and wings held approximately 5, litres of fuel with an additional 1, litres in an external drop tank. The specific fuel consumption was only 0. A weapons load of up to 7, kg could be accommodated on nine hardpoints: one centreline pylon, two fuselage pylons, two inner and two outer wing pylons and two pylons behind the wing landing gear.
The centreline pylon was the only pylon plumbed for carrying an external fuel tank, and was usually so occupied. The AJ 37 was typically equipped with a total of seven Ba& sh Sverigethree underneath the fuselage and two under each wing, a further two wing-mounted hardpoints could be optionally fitted but this facility was rarely used. Various munitions could be carried, such as several types of rockets: the mm M56GP 4 kg armour-piercing, the M56B with 6. The AJ 37 was designed to carry two RB 04 E anti-ship missiles on the inboard wing pylons with an optional third missile on the centreline pylon.
In a ground-attack role, a combination of unguided mm rockets in sextuple pods and kg fragmentation bombs on quadruple-mounts could be used. Other armaments include explosive minesand 30 mm ADEN cannon pods  with rounds of ammunition on the inboard wing pylons.
The KCA was carried, along with rounds of ammunition, in a conformal pod under the fuselage. In OctoberSkaraborg Air Force Wing was reportedly close to achieving full operational effectiveness;  by Maythe Swedish Air Force had two operational squadrons using the Viggen along with a third squadron in the final process of achieving that status. During the later half of the s and into the s, the introduction of various variants of the Viggen proceeded; these included the SK 37, a two-seat operational-conversion trainer, introduced inthe SF 37, an overland reconnaissance model, introduced inand the SH 37, a maritime reconnaissance version, introduced in The Viggen was designed to be simple to maintain, even by conscripted flight line mechanics with limited technical training.
Over the long Ba& sh Sverige, the Viggen required man hours per Ba& sh Sverige hour of maintenance Shqiptar at the depot level, and nine-man hours per flight hour Ba& sh Sverige the front line. By the mids, Swedish Viggen fighter pilots, using the predictable patterns of Lockheed SR Blackbird routine flights over the Baltic Sea, had managed to achieve radar lock-on with radar on the SR on numerous occasions.
Despite heavy jamming from the SR, target illumination was maintained by feeding target location from ground-based radars to the fire-control computer in the Viggen. Although Saab offered the Viggen for sale worldwide, and was the subject of a heavy marketing campaign in both European and developing countries during the s, ultimately no export sales were made.
Data from Combat Aircraft since . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the car, see Saab § Saab Viggen. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Aviation portal Sweden portal.
Swedish Defence Materiel Administration. Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 12 February Svensk forntro och folksed i bild och ord. Archived from the original on 24 September Arichteva 13 October
The Saab 37 Viggen Swedish for "the bolt " or "the tufted duck " see name [Nb 1]  is a retired Swedish single-seat, single-engine, short-medium range combat aircraft. Development work on the type was initiated at Saab in and, following the selection of a radical delta wing configuration, the resulting aircraft performed its first flight on 8 February and entered service in 21 June
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